• B.A., Harvard College (1978)
  • Ph.D., Harvard University (1984)




  • “Conatus,” in Yitzhak Melamed, ed., Cambridge Critical Guide to Spinoza’s “Ethics” (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017)
  • “Spinoza on the Primary Affects,” in Noa Naaman, ed., Freedom and the Passions in Spinoza (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming)
  • “Remarks on Cognition in Spinoza: Understanding, Sensation, and Belief,” in Hemmo Laiho and Arto Repo, eds., De natura rerum: Scripta in honorem professoris Olli Koistinen sexagesimum annum complentis [Reports from the Department of Philosophy, vol. 38] (Turku, Finland: University of Turku, 2016), pp. 134-147
  • “The Highest Good and Perfection in Spinoza,” in Michael Della Rocca, ed., The Oxford Handbook of Spinoza (New York: Oxford University Press, online, 2016)
  • “Spinoza, the Will, and the Ontology of Power,” in Yitzhak Melamed, ed., The Young Spinoza (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015), pp. 160-182
  • “The Ethics in Spinoza’s Ethics,” in Matthew Kisner and Andrew Youpa, eds., Essays on Spinoza’s Ethical Theory (Oxford University Press, 2014), pp. 20-40
  • “Epistemology Past and Present,” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 113 (2013), pp. 175-200
  • “Sensation and Knowledge of Body in Descartes’s Meditations,” in Karen Detlefsen, ed., Descartes’ Meditations: A Critical Guide (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013)
  • “Conatus and Perfection in Spinoza,” in John Carriero, ed., Early Modern Philosophy Reconsidered: Essays in Honor of Paul Hoffman, a special issue of Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 35 (2011)
  • “The Cartesian Circle and the Foundations of Knowledge” in Janet Broughton and John Carriero, eds., A Companion to Descartes (Blackwell, 2008), pp. 302-318.
  • Co-edited, with Janet Broughton, A Companion to Descartes (Blackwell, 2008).
  • “Substance and Ends in Leibniz”, in Paul Hoffman, David Owen, and Gideon Yaffe, eds., Contemporary Perspectives on Early Modern Philososophy: Essays in Honor of Vere Chappell (Broadview Press, 2008), pp 115-140.
  • “Spinoza on Final Causality,” in Daniel Garber and Steven Nadler, eds., Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy (Oxford University Press, 2005), vol. 2, pp. 105-147.
  • “Berkeley, Resemblance, and Sensible Things” (Co-winner of the 2001 Colin and Ailsa Turbayne International Berkeley Essay Prize Competition), Philosophical Topics, 31 (2003), pp. 21-46.
  • “Monism in Spinoza,” in John Biro and Olli Koistinen, eds., Spinoza: Metaphysical Themes (Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. 38-59.
  • Review of Ideas and Mechanism, by Margaret Wilson (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999), Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie, 83 (2000), pp. 107-111
  • “Painting and Dreaming in the First Meditation,” in Norms and Modes of Thinking in Descartes, Acta Philosophica Fennica, 64 (1999), pp. 13-46.
  • “Adams on Leibniz on Contingency,” Leibniz Society Review, 6 (1996), pp. 61-77.
  • “On the Relationship Between Mode and Substance in Spinoza’s Metaphysics,” Journal of the History of Philosophy, 33 (1995) pp. 245-273.
  • “Leibniz on Infinite Resolution and Intra-mundane Contingency, Part Two: Necessity, Contingency, and the Divine Faculties,” Studia Leibnitiana, 27 (1995), pp. 1-30.
  • “On the Theological Roots of Spinoza’s Argument for Monism,” Faith and Philosophy, 11 (1994), pp. 626-644.
  • “Leibniz on Infinite Resolution and Intra-mundane Contingency, Part One: Infinite Resolution” Studia Leibnitiana, 25 (1993),pp. 1-26.
  • “Spinoza’s Views on Necessity in Historical Perspective,” Philosophical Topics, 19 (1991), pp. 47-96.
  • Descartes and the Autonomy of the Human Understanding (Hamden, CT: Garland, 1990; Harvard Dissertations in Philosophy)
  • “Newton on Space and Time: Comments on Two Papers by J. E. McGuire,” in Phillip Bricker and R. I. G. Hughes, eds., Philosophical Perspectives on Newtonian Science (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990), pp. 109-133
  • Co-authored with Paul Hoffman, Review of The Philosophical Writings of Descartes, trans. Cottingham et al. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), Philosophical Review, 99 (1990), pp. 93-104
  • “The First Meditation,” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 68 (1987), pp. 222-248.
  • “The Second Meditation and the Essence of the Mind,” in Essays on Descartes’ Meditations, ed. by A.O. Rorty (University of California, 1986), pp. 199-221.


  • Edited volume, Early Modern Philosophy Reconsidered: Essays in Honor of Paul Hoffman, a special issue of Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 35 (2011).
  • Edited book, A Companion to Descartes, co-edited with Janet Broughton (Oxford: Blackwell, 2008)

Honors and Awards

North American Co-editor, Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie, 2015-present