Ph.D., Harvard University (1984)



  • “The Cartesian Circle and the Foundations of Knowledge” in Janet Broughton and John Carriero, eds., A Companion to Descartes (Blackwell, 2008), pp. 302-318.
  • Co-edited, with Janet Broughton, A Companion to Descartes (Blackwell, 2008).
  • “Substance and Ends in Leibniz”, in Paul Hoffman, David Owen, and Gideon Yaffe, eds., Contemporary Perspectives on Early Modern Philososophy: Essays in Honor of Vere Chappell (Broadview Press, 2008), pp 115-140.
  • “Spinoza on Final Causality,” in Daniel Garber and Steven Nadler, eds., Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy (Oxford University Press, 2005), vol. 2, pp. 105-147.
  • “Berkeley, Resemblance, and Sensible Things” (Co-winner of the 2001 Colin and Ailsa Turbayne International Berkeley Essay Prize Competition), Philosophical Topics, 31 (2003), pp. 21-46.
  • “Monism in Spinoza,” in John Biro and Olli Koistinen, eds., Spinoza: Metaphysical Themes (Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. 38-59.
  • “Painting and Dreaming in the First Meditation,” in Norms and Modes of Thinking in Descartes, Acta Philosophica Fennica, 64 (1999), pp. 13-46.
  • “Adams on Leibniz on Contingency,” Leibniz Society Review, 6 (1996), pp. 61-77.
  • “On the Relationship Between Mode and Substance in Spinoza’s Metaphysics,” Journal of the History of Philosophy, 33 (1995) pp. 245-273.
  • “Leibniz on Infinite Resolution and Intra-mundane Contingency, Part Two: Necessity, Contingency, and the Divine Faculties,” Studia Leibnitiana, 27 (1995), pp. 1-30.
  • “On the Theological Roots of Spinoza’s Argument for Monism,” Faith and Philosophy, 11 (1994), pp. 626-644.
  • “Leibniz on Infinite Resolution and Intra-mundane Contingency, Part One: Infinite Resolution” Studia Leibnitiana, 25 (1993),pp. 1-26.
  • “Spinoza’s Views on Necessity in Historical Perspective,” Philosophical Topics, 19 (1991), pp. 47-96.
  • “The First Meditation,” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 68 (1987), pp. 222-248.
  • “The Second Meditation and the Essence of the Mind,” in Essays on Descartes’ Meditations, ed. by A.O. Rorty (University of California, 1986), pp. 199-221.

Works in Progress:

“Spinoza on Felicity”